Most Common Reasons Children Wet the BedHoward J. Bennett, MD
Parents who have a child experiencing bedwetting can feel confused, frustrated, and even isolated – it’s not a topic a lot of people talk about. Know that you’re not alone – many families manage bedwetting in their homes every day. In fact, 5 million American children wake up each day not knowing if their bed will be wet or dry.
Although bedwetting is more common among younger children, it is a problem for all ages: 30% of 3-year-olds, 40% of 4-year-olds, 20% of 5-year-olds, 12% of 6-year-olds, 5% of 10-year-olds and 3% of 12-year-olds wet the bed. To make matters even more stressful for families, since bedwetting is one of those hidden conditions of childhood, most children (and some parents) think they are the only ones with the problem.
Bedwetting is not a serious medical condition, but it can be very difficult to live with. Wetting the bed may interfere with a child’s socialization and can lead to significant stress within the family at a time when kids should be enjoying the childhood. Because parents are often uninformed about the problem, children may be shamed or punished for being wet at night. Nighttime wetting is most often a developmental issue that is not their fault. It’s also something the majority of children outgrow in time. However, by exploring and understanding the reasons children wet the bed, the entire process can become far less daunting and stressful for you and your child.
Factors That Contribute To Bedwetting
Bedwetting usually results from a maturational delay in the way the brain and bladder communicate with each other at night. There are three main factors that contribute to the problem.
- Children who wet the bed usually have a smaller bladder capacity than their peers. This causes them to urinate more frequently during the day and their bladder has less room to “hold” urine at night.
- The brain produces a hormone at night that reduces the amount of urine the kidneys make. Some children who wet the bed produce less of this hormone and thereby make more urine while they sleep.
- Some children have trouble arousing at night. As a result, the brain may not respond when the bladder signals that the child needs to urinate.
Most parents pay little attention to the frequency or consistency of their children’s bowel movements once they are toilet trained. As a result, constipation is an underrecognized cause of bedwetting. If a child has a lot of stool in his rectum, it can push against the bladder. This can reduce how much urine the bladder can hold and may limit how well the bladder empties when a child urinates. It can also “confuse” the nerve signals that go from the bladder to the brain. This can cause unexpected bladder contractions that lead to daytime urgency and bedwetting.
Wetting the bed runs in families. Most children who wet the bed have at least one parent or another close relative who had the same problem growing up.
Although children may start wetting the bed after an episode of emotional stress, psychological problems are not a factor in kids who have wet the bed since early childhood. Examples of stressful situations that can trigger bedwetting include moving to a new home, changing schools or the death of a loved one. The wetting usually resolves when the stress passes.
Less than 3% of children with bedwetting have a medical problem that underlies their wetting. Bedwetting has been reported with sleep apnea, sickle cell disease, urinary tract infections, diabetes and neurologic problems. In most cases, these problems cause bedwetting in children who have been previously dry at night.
Bedwetting is a common problem that can greatly affect children and families. It is neither the fault of the child nor the parent and is not usually caused by a serious medical disorder. By just being open about it with your child and managing the process with absorbent products, such as Goodnites® NightTime Underwear or Goodnites® Bed Mats, parents can help keep them dry and free from stress and embarrassment until their bodies work out the issue naturally in time.
Dr. Bennett is the author of Waking Up Dry: A Guide to Help Children Overcome Bedwetting and Max Archer, Kid Detective: The Case of the Wet Bed.
These articles are not a substitute for medical advice, consult your doctor as needed.